WORKDAY Function

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This post outlines the formula syntax and usage of the WORKDAY function in Microsoft Excel. You will also learn how the WORKDAY function works.

WORKDAY Function Description

Returns a number that symbolises a date that is the indicator for the number of working days before or after a date (the starting date). Working days omit weekends and any dates registered as holidays. Use WORKDAY to skip weekends or holidays anytime you calculate invoice due dates, expected delivery times, or the number of days of work undertaken.

Tip: To calculate the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays by using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days, use the WORKDAY.INTL function.

WORKDAY function Example.
Exceljet, 2020.

WORKDAY Function Syntax

WORKDAY(start_date, days, [holidays])

The WORKDAY function syntax has the following arguments:

  • Start_date –   Required. A date that reflects the start date.
  • Days   – Required. The number of non-weekend and non-holiday days before or after start_date. A positive value for days captures a future date; a negative value returns a past date.
  • Holidays  –  Optional. An optional list of one or more dates to be removed from the working calendar, including state and federal holidays and floating holidays. The list can be either a cell range encompassing dates or an array constant of the serial numbers that indicate the dates.

Important: Dates should be entered by using the DATE function, or as results of other formulas or functions. For example, use DATE(2008,5,23) for the 23rd day of May, 2008. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text.

WORKDAY Function Remarks

These points will state to you how the the WORKDAY function works regarding what values can be entered.

  • Microsoft Excel holds dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. Automatically, January 1, 1900 is serial number 1, and January 1, 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39,448 days after January 1, 1900.
  • If any argument is an invalid date, WORKDAY yields the #VALUE! error value.
  • If start_date plus days captures an invalid date, WORKDAY returns the #NUM! error value.
  • If days is not an integer, it is truncated.


Copy the example data in the following table, and paste it in cell A1 of a new Excel worksheet. For formulas to present results, pick them, press F2, and then press Enter. If you need to, you can extend the column widths to observe all the data.

10/1/2008Start date
151Days to completion
FormulaDescription (Result)Result
=WORKDAY(A2,A3)Date 151 workdays from the start date (4/30/2009)4/30/2009
=WORKDAY(A2,A3,A4:A6)Date 151 workdays from the start date, excluding holidays (5/5/2009)5/5/2009

Also Check Out

Time & Date

WEEKDAY Function


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